Bhakti-Rasamrta-Sesa

 

35,00

A Treatise on Sanskrit Poetics Including Rupa Gosvami’s Citra-Kavitvani.

By a mysterious author, known as a disciple of Jiva Gosvami.

Translated by Gaurapada dasa, Edited by Matsya Avatara Dasa

About the Book

 

Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa was written by a disciple of Jiva Gosvami. Bhakti-rasamrta-sasa covers the Poetical theory which is not found in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu and follows the theory in Visvanatha Kaviraja’s Sahitya-darpana

Visvanatha Kaviraja’s Sahityadarpana and other important treatises on Sanskrit poetics mostly follow kavya-prakasa. In their commentaries on Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu and on Ujjvalanilamani, Jiva Gosvami and Visvanatha Cakravarti quote from Kavya-prakasa and Sahitya-darpana. The Gosamis attentively studied those two books. In addition, several verses in Padyavali are sourced in Sahitya-darpana.

“The rasika or sahrdaya, the true appreciator of poetry, must be, according to the conception of the Sanskrit therists, not only well read wise, and initiated into the intricacies of theoretic requirements, but also possessed of fine instincts of aesthetic enjoyment,” (Dr. Sushil Kumar De, History of Sanskrit Poetics)

 

Introduction

 

Bhakti-rassamrta-sesa is so called because it is the remainder of the nectar of bhakti-rasa (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu). In other words, it is what needs to be added to the nectar theory of bhakti-rasa. The nectar theory of bhakti-rasa. The aspects of poetic theory which are not covered in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, Ujjvalanilamani and Nataka-candrika are in Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa. And in the fourth chapter (4.21-24; 4. 44-51), the author of Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa included all the verses of Rupa Gosvami’s Citra-kavitvani(Stavamala).

 

In Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa, the definition of ornaments and so on are the same as those in Sahitya-darpana, a treatise on are the same as those in Sahitya-darpana, a treations of ornaments and so on are the same as those in Sahitya-darpana, a treatise on poetics written by Visvanatha Kaviraja, an outstanding Vaisnava scholar at the court of King Narasimha of kalinga (Orissa), sometime between 1300 and 1384 CE. The younger brother of Visvanatha Kaviraja was the famous Candidasa, whose songs were relished by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Candidasa wrote a commentary on kavya-prakasa in 1300 CE. Visvanatha Kaviraja was a devout Vaisnava. At the end of his commentary on kavya-prakasa, he wrote: rama-krsna-carane mama bhaktir astu, “May I achieve devotional service to Rama and to Krsna” (kavya-prakasa-darpana)

 

The Gosvamis studied Sahitya-darpana. It is quoted in Brhad-vaisnava-tosani (10.21.3), in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (3.4.78), and in Natakacandrika (76; 100; 118; 162; 167; 168; 170; 176). Jiva Gosvami refers to it in Durgama-sanga,ani (2.5.101;4.2.12;4.3.51), in Locanarocani (5.3;14.114), in Sarva-sarinvadini 11.47-52 of Tattva-sandarbha, and several times in Priti-sandarbha 110.In his commentary on Ujjvalanilamani, Visvanatha Cakravarti quotes Sahitya-darpana three times (Ananda-candrika 5.61;11.6;15.15). A devotee who reads Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa acquires the same knowledge of Sanskrit poetics that the Gosvamis had. Although in the original text of Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa the chapter on the gunas (qualities) is chater seven and thus occurs after the chapter on the ritis(styles), the present writer switched their order because the styles are based upon the qualities and because Visvanatha Kavirajaexpounds the styles after the gunas.

The Mysterious Author

of Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa

 

Some scholars, such as Haridasa of Navadvipa (c. 1940) and Haridasa of Vrndavana (1919-2013), said that author of Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa is Jiva Gosvami. This presumption is erroneous for several reasons. For instance, in text 2.31, the author of Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa changed the first line of Visvanatha Kaviraja’s verse and broke the meter, other reasons are pointed out in the Commentary (4.40; etc.) In truth, the author of Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa was an anonymous, outstanding Gaudiya Vaisnava Panditawho had extensive knowledge of Gopala-campu and so on.

 

The readings of Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa are from Haridasa Sastri’s edition (Vrndavana, India, 1982). ???Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa was first published by Haridas Dasa, Haribol Kutir, Navadvipa, Bengal, in 1942. It is based on a single manuscript found in the library of the Radha Damodara temple in Vrndavana. At the end, the copyist wrote:

 

Kamyakakhya-vane maghe srimad-damodaralaye

Sake vasu-eka-rtu-vidhau rakayam kuja-vasare

gopi-dhavain gurum natva yatnenatimudanvita

rasamrtasya sesam hi likhitam vrndavane

 

Kamyaka-akhya-vane-in the forest known as Kamya; maghhe-in Magha; srimad-damodara-alaye-in the abode of Sriman Damodara; sake-in Saka; vasu-eight [vasus]; eka-one; rtu-six [seasons]; vidhau-one [moon]; rakayam-on the full moon; kuja-when birds are warbling; vasare-on a day; gopi-dhavam-the gopis’ husband; gurum-to the spiritual master; natva-after bowing; yatnena-with effort; atimuda-with intense joy; anvita-endowed; rasa-amrtasya-of the nectar of rasa; sesam-the remainder; hi-(a verse filler); likhitam-written; vrndavane-in Vrndavana.

 

“In Vrndavana, in the abode of Sri Damodara in Kamyavana, on a day when the birds are warbling, during the full moon in the month of Magha in Saka 1618 (1696 CE), the remainder of the nectar of rasa (rasamrta-sesa) has been written with great joy after effortfully bowing to the spiritual master, the gopis husband.”

 

In that regard, sometimes an explanation in Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa is also seen in Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Based on this verse, Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa predates Baladeva Vidyabhusan’s works. On the other hand, in their respective explanations of samsrsti,Baladeva Vidyabhusana reiterated Visvanatha Kaviraja’s mistake regarding a yamaka (Sahitya-kaumudi 10.246), whereas the author of Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa corrected Visvanatha’s mistake (4.394).

Definitional Verses (karika),

Elaborations (vrtti),

and Illustrative Verses

 

In Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa, the definitions of ornaments and so on are the same as those in Sahitya-darpana. The author of Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa rarely made changes. Moreover, whole karika or a portion of karika is called a sutra. On the right side of each sutra, the present writer added the number of that sutra in Sahitya-darpana. Since a definitional verse consists of four lines, those lines are represented the letters a, b, c,and d respectively. For the most part, the elaborations on the sutras are the same in Sahitya-darpana.

 

The illustrative verses in Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa are taken from Sahitya-darpana and from Gopala-campu, Govinda-lilamrta, and Alankara-kaustubha. Many more examples from the latter three are shown in the Commentary. My profound respects go to MatsyaAvatara Dasa for his collaboration in the translation of Alankara-kaustubha.

 

Krsnadasa kaviraja exemplified the literary ornaments in the eleventh, sisteenth, and seventeenth chapters of Govinda-lilamrta. Vrndavana Cakravarti, the renowned commentator on Govinda-lilamrta, pointed out the figures of speech in those chapters. According to Haridasa Dasa, Vrndavana was a grand-disciple of Visvanatha Cakravarti, and his commentary on Govinda-lilamrtawas completed in Vrndavana, in Saka 1701 (1779 CE). Thus Vrndavana Cakravarti lived after both the author of this book and Baladeva Vidyabhusana, and his explanations of verses of Govinda-lilamrta and his classification of those verses in the categories of ornaments follow the same explanations of those verses in Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa and in Sahitya-kaumudi.

 

Often, the author of Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa replaced some word in an example of Sahitya-darpana with either Krsna’name, Radha’sname, or the like. A footnote shows the reading in Sahitya-darpana. In so doing the author followed the train of thought of CaitanyaMahaprabhu, who read the poetry of Vidyati and Candidasa: Although they wrote on topics of material rasas, He converted those material subject matters into transcendental ones in His mind and heart. Thuse He relished their poetry as if it were imbued with the aprastuta-prasamsa ornament (indirect expression) (4.216).

 

The old-school poetical rhetoricians used the term bhakti in the sense of “figurative usage” (laksana-vrtti). The real bhakti is all about that bhakti. The Lord communicates indirectly: paroksam mama ca priyam, “I as well prefer an indirect mode of expression” (Bhagavatam 11.21.35). Poetics sheds light on the concept and helps us understand Bhagavatam.

 

Sabara Svami is the first authority to use the word bhakti in the abovementioned sense. The poets of old followed suit:

Kavya-sabdo yam gunalankara-samskrtayoh sabdarthayor vartate, bhaktya tu sabdartha-matra-vacano tra grhyate, “This word poetry refers to sounds and meanings embellished by literary qualities and ornaments. The mention of only sound and meaning takes place by figurative usage (bhakti) (rasa is conveyed through them)” (Vamana’s kavyalankara-sutra 1.1.1),

upacara-matram tu bhaktih, “Bhakti (figurative usage) is simply upacara (metaphorical usage)” (Anandavardhana’s Dhvany-aloka1.14),

Kavyaika-rupatvac ca sarasvateye pi kavya-purusa iti bhaktya prayunjate, “He is the kavya-purusa also in the sense of being Sarasvati’s son: This takes place by figurative usage (bhakti), also because he is the primordial form of poetry” (Rajasekhara’skavya-mimamsa 1.3),

Ojasi bhaktya ojah-pada-vacye sabdartha-dharma-visese, “By figurative usage (bhakti), “in ojas” means “in a specific attribute, expressed by the term ojas,of sound and meaning”” (Sahitya-darpana 8.9-10), bhaktih seva-gauna-vrttyoh, “Bhakti means “service and “qualitative figurative usage”” (Hema-kosa 2.185).

Abhinavagupta says bhakti, derived from the verbal root bhaj sevayam (to serve), means “rhat which is employed, i.e. that which is proclaimed by scholars as being well-known,” and denotes the concept of similarity and so on. The term bhakta means “it has come from bhakti,” and is a synonym of “indirect meaning” (laksanika artha). Evam ca sarvatra vyanjake vyangya-sabda-proyogobhaktah (Panditaraja Jagannatha’s Rasa-gangadhara, kavya-mala edition pp. 62-63).

 

One benefit of studying poetry is that all of us develop the propensity to speak with imager and metaphorical language. Poetry gets our mojo going.

Furthermore, to understand the world, the materialistic way of thinking needs the assistance of an educated, intuitive approach because the world is a form of symbolism.

 

Contents

The Specific Topics in Each Chapter 9
The Ornaments of Meaning in Alphabetical Order 20
Introduction 23
Comparative table 24
The mysterious author of this book 25
Karikas and vrttis 26
The technical usage of the term bhakti 28
The differences between Bhakti-rasamrta-sesa and Sahitya-kaumudi 29
The commentators 30
Chapter One 31
A definition of poetry
Chapter Two 45
A sentence (vakya), words (sabda, pada), meanings (artha),and the modes of meaning (vrtti)
Chapter Three 104
First-rate and second-rate poetry
Chapter Four 194
Ornaments of sound (sabda alankara) and ornaments of meaning (artha alankara)
Chapter Five 669
The literary faults (dosa)
Chapter Six 692
The literary qualities (guna)
Chapter Seven 712
The styles (riti)
Appendix 1 727
The 18 main varieties of dhvani
Appendix 2 728
The broad categories of ornaments of meaning
Appendix 3 733
A taste of Caitanya-caritamrta Maha-kavya
Bibligraphy 752

 

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